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Geronimo

October 23, 2019 in History

By History.com Editors

Geronimo (1829-1909) was an Apache leader and medicine man best known for his fearlessness in resisting anyone–Mexican or American—who attempted to remove his people from their tribal lands.

He repeatedly evaded capture and life on a reservation, and during his final escape, a full quarter of the U.S. standing army pursued him and his followers. When Geronimo was captured on September 4, 1886, he was the last Native American leader to formally surrender to the U.S. military. He spent the last 20 years of his life as a prisoner of war.

Geronimo (1829-1909), American Apache chieftain, kneels with a rifle in his hands, 1887.

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Geronimo’s Early Life

Geronimo was born in what is today Arizona in the upper Gila River country on June 16, 1829. His birth name was Goyahkla, or “one who yawns.” He was part of the Bedonkohe subsection of the Chiricahua tribe of Apaches, a small but mighty group of around 8,000 people. By the time he came of age, the Apaches were at war with Mexicans to the South, the U.S. government to the North and neighboring Comanche and Navajo tribes. He showed early promise as a hunter and led four successful raids on nearby tribes by age 17.

Personal tragedy shaped his lifelong hatred for anyone who attempted to subject him or his people. While he was away on a trading trip in 1851, Mexican soldiers led by Colonel Jose Maria Carrasco attacked his family’s camp. Geronimo’s wife, Alope, their three children and his mother were all murdered.

Wild with grief, Geronimo burned his family’s belonging according to Apache tradition before heading into the forest, where he claimed he heard a voice that told him: “No gun will ever kill you. I will take the bullets from the guns … and I will guide your arrows.” He soon hunted down his family’s killers and devoted his life to avenging them.

What Does the Name ‘Geronimo!’ Mean?

The source of the name “Geronimo” is disputed. The young Goyahkla earned the nickname while leading Apache raids. Some historians believe its origins are the cries of frightened Mexican soldiers calling out the name of the Catholic St. Jerome when they faced Geronimo in battle. Others believe it is simply a mispronunciation of “Goyahkla.”

Whatever the origin of the name “Geronimo,” it took on new life long after the leader’s …read more

Source: HISTORY

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If Facebook Doesn't Launch Libra, Someone Else Should

October 23, 2019 in Economics

By Diego Zuluaga

Diego Zuluaga

Politicians have welcomed news of a regulatory crackdown on Libra, the global currency and payments initiative incubated at Facebook. Much of Capitol Hill’s distrust for the initiative was on display Wednesday morning, as Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg testified before the House Financial Services Committee.

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Elected representatives may distrust Facebook because of its past conduct. They may even harbor concerns about Big Tech firms with copious amounts of customer data becoming involved in financial services. But if Libra never comes to pass, a similar initiative will urgently need to take its place in order to increase global financial inclusion. Without easy access to payments and credit, those living in low- and middle-income countries will struggle to build the businesses and human capital required to match the standard of living of wealthy countries.

The Libra Association was proposed in June as a network with its own currency that could be used for payments and other transactions. Members of the Libra Association, which included Facebook and 27 corporate partners, would ensure that each unit of Libra was backed by financial assets denominated in a mix of stable national currencies, such as the US dollar and the euro. This would help keep Libra’s value from fluctuating wildly, unlike other digital currencies like Bitcoin. The members would also validate transactions and offer Libra-based products, such as digital wallets.

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But Facebook’s leading role in the initiative immediately earned Libra political blowback due to the firm’s huge size, its past use of customer data and its recent involvement in controversial votes such as the 2016 US presidential election. Rep. Maxine Waters, Chairwoman of the House Financial Services Committee, called on Facebook to place a “moratorium” on the project. Senator Sherrod Brown, the Senate Banking Committee’s leading Democrat, dismissed Libra as “a risky new cryptocurrency [run] out of a Swiss bank account.” Brown and Hawaii Senator …read more

Source: OP-EDS

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Sitting Bull

October 23, 2019 in History

By History.com Editors

Sitting Bull (c. 1831-1890) was a Teton Dakota .

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Source: HISTORY

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Presidents Gone Wild — with Executive Orders

October 23, 2019 in Economics

By Michael D. Tanner

Michael D. Tanner

Barrels of ink and countless hours of news time have been devoted to President Trump’s casual embrace of unilateralism and authoritarianism — with good cause. This is, after all, someone who says, “Presidents can do whatever they want.” As president, he has now issued more executive orders than Barack Obama, of the infamous “phone and a pen,” did over the same period. He has asserted the power to redirect congressionally appropriated funds, wage war, and ignore subpoenas.

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Rhetorically, Democrats have loudly criticized this latest iteration of the imperial presidency. Yet, out on the campaign trail, the Democratic presidential aspirants have been quick to embrace a view of almost unlimited presidential power.

We now shrug off the grandiose promises of candidates to remake the economy, establish universal health care, and so on, as if Congress had no say in the matter. But when the need to build a legislative consensus does come up, the candidates simply promise to do it themselves.

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Former vice president Joe Biden has criticized the use of executive orders. However, his website clearly states, “On day one, Biden will sign a series of new executive orders with unprecedented reach that go well beyond the Obama-Biden Administration platform and put us on the right track.”

Elizabeth Warren has already promised more than a dozen specific executive orders on issues ranging from immigration to worker non-compete clauses, from banning fracking to “requir[ing] every federal agency to incorporate diversity as part of their core strategic plan and create support networks through a government-wide mentorship program that centers Black and Brown employees.” And that doesn’t count all the executive orders she plans to undo Trump’s executive orders, which were designed to undo Obama’s executive orders, which were . . . you get the idea.

The other candidates are equally enamored of going it alone. Bernie Sanders would ban cuts to pension benefits through executive order, and Kamala Harris would impose a variety of gun-control measures. Julian Castro would unilaterally impose a carbon tax. And …read more

Source: OP-EDS